The public realm has lost the power of illumination that was part of their primary nature. In Western countries, where, since the decline of the ancient world, it has been considered to emancipate politics as one of the basic freedoms, an increasing number of people use this freedom and depart from world and its obligations […] but each of these dropouts inflicts the world almost demonstrable loss: what is lost is the specific commitment and usually irreplaceable should have formed between the individual and their neighbors .
Hannah Arendt, Men in the Dark Times
There are several reasons why we believe that in our time there are several expressions that fashionable society of our times: lack of solidarity, decay of moral values, culture of narcissism, selfishness, vindictive thought of radical or conservative and hedonism are terms that constantly resonate in the public space.
In this regard, the Catholic bishop of Limburg Franz Kamphaus, argues in this regard:
Each movement in the infinite field of freedom is accompanied by crises of relationships, loyalties breaks, tears in the fabric of tradition. The man who wants to enjoy full of freedom, has finally your own life? It seems modern societies because of their fragmentation, depletion of solidarity? (Kamphaus, 1994).
The XXI century lives of moral resources which have been replaced by different values that are geared towards productivity and ties established by global capitalism, and from our perspective, stem from three main categories that we analyzed in detail in chapter above: the productive solidarity, social division and specialization of the workforce. Elements that in our view are the engines of the breakdown of values such as sense of community, solidarity and social justice. And that takes root substantially the entire foundation of democracy today.
Alexis de Tocqueville wrote: “Fight against freedom means fighting against God” (Tocqueville, 1957: 6). That principle is from the beginning a kind of authorization that the individual is granted himself for the individual to make its own realities from their own faith and conviction.
This means that the whole society ego or selfishness can not be combated with less freedom, but with greater political freedom. Since this case the necessary links in public spaces that promote greater community and greater harmony, the opposite of what sets the neoliberal market.
Today more than we are never “Sons of Liberty” (Beck, 1999: 1). Society of our times does not live under a crisis of culture but lives surrounded by various pitfalls that test its stability.
The sense of freedom, which promote our political and economic elites, is the biggest threat now facing the individual: “Verbal praise of freedom becomes fact and in everyday life, and thus call into question the fundamentals of existing until now “(9 Beck, 199) coexistence. According to Ulrich Beck, the disaster is, we have to recognize, understand and consolidate more and different types of freedoms which had not been foreseen in the famous and promised democracy.
The fear of not being able to do something to change our safety and security situations orillan the individual tucking into a chaotic freedom that confuses and inhibits the individual’s existence.
The demands of the industry, business and the media cluttering positivity existence. That is why in our times is not liquid dialogue, not arguments, emotions and feelings that lead to a compromise in the short, medium and long term are exchanged, do not take the time to think about the other. The individual lives stalked and constantly bombarded with news that say nothing. There are plenty of television programs in which the only goal is to paralyze undead, evil robots, horrible diseases and stories of characters locked.
The modern individual lives lost to the screen or on your smartphone at whose end is the other, all the time-aligned text that sends often superficially. The man of our time has ceased to have time, but paradoxically, feels full of freedom and possibility.
Society ego-as well called Ulrich Beck in the introduction of the play Sons of Liberty, positivity is a characteristic of this type of society element, whose main feature is intended that the person works, render, revenge weather some work that benefits their productivity, income and allow their sociability efficiently. This allows the individual to feel free but not perceive the sense of subjugation and oppression.
In the works that offer companies increasingly fewer submission of master-slave type “in which the struggle for recognition implied that the slave wanted to be seen by the master, and therefore tried looking in the other-love” (Orozco, 2015: 171). So today the individual is master and slave himself. One tasks, excessive demands, imposing unreachable goals. “The hope of being recognized fades and sometimes does not matter. It is as if we had introjected the master in each of us “(Orozco, 2015: 171). So the guy runs to the gym, eat on the run, goes back to work and for years the same ritual. While for a long time does not enter into talks with anyone and feeling and mood of loneliness increases. Emerging various depressive disorders, anxiety, anguish and despair, “the subject no longer knows and what he wants, what he wants something, has identity problems of all kinds” (Orozco, 2015: 172).
The individualized society requires competition. In our liquid times the individual competitiveness keeps afloat, which is why cooperation and work together to pursue common goods shirk. Prevails a kind of fear spread that refers to someone who knows everything about you. Cameras watching us at all hours of the day, emails inspection, verification visits web pages. Today nothing is secret, everything around the individual is public, feelings, relationships, emotions, judgments, opinions, comments on any interest. Free will and freedom of expression seem to be found at its best, and in fact always allowed and when not transgress or violate the status quo of political, social structures or the same economy. The company has as determinative ego-the irrelación.
That is the positive as negation of the other that denies us. Speed, violence, consumption, competition, individualism, ad nauseam, silence, little thought, attention, contempt for the poor, war without remission, hunger (…) no matter what the original of each. Matter what one does to the extent that it gives points to earn more money. Nor it is studied taste and love of vocation. The young man simply wants to keep the average to keep the scholarship. He never goes to the office of teacher enamored of an idea, fighting for an ideology. He wants to spend ten. And the authorities care about excellence but mediating infamous, exigenciales times that sick students and teachers, with all controls barely be seen. And that in all schools throughout the system. Today everything is controlled is at least educate. And now that companies no training employees live alienated and frightened. Enslaved and gaining little. All do the same, they all suffer the same. All indifferent to all. (Orozco, 2015: 172-173).
Currently there are no common enemies, there are unknown and strange. Otherness means enmity, that way everything becomes equal. “In the XXI century the idea surpass all other pathogen as” (Orozco, 2015: 174), since globalization, the liberal triumph and interconnection systems kill indifference, today no longer tolerated, ignored.
Han Chul argues about it:
Society (…) is characterized by the desperation of otherness and strangeness. Otherness is a fundamental category of immunology. Each immunological reaction is a reaction to otherness. But now, instead of this, the difference appears, which produces no immune reaction (Chul-Han, 2012: 45).
The death of the other, to call it somehow becomes a merely different being that does not represent a threat to the elites and those who pull the strings of the world. The individual so that any danger is neutralized without annihilating. Simply discipline and radically them specialized training, placement in processes of assimilation and identification. So indifferent want your cell phone, your car, your television screen. part of what Han Chul-called system performance will be restored.
Consequently, there is an excess of positivity, the other no longer denies me. He is assimilating deny his denial of his and eliminating the rest. So the individual becomes selfish, lonely, silent, with nothing to say, but it becomes a public agent of its private causes.
All repel all. And we do what all. So all live indifferent. It’s the end of the company in which one is important. The end of true communication. The end of the long and interested dialogue. The end of the erotic commitment. The end of friendship. It is the end of stable relationships. And it is the end of international conflicts that take away our dream (Orozco, 2015: 178).
And so we are organized. Han Chul says through a quotation from Baudrillard:
According to baudrillardesca genealogy of enmity, the enemy appears in the first phase as a wolf. […] In the next phase, the enemy that operates clandestinely and hygienic means of combat. After a later stage, the beetle, the enemy adopts finally a virally. […] Viral violence of those oddities that are set in the system as a sleeper terrorist cells and try to destroy it. Terrorism as the main figure of the viral violence is, according to Baudrillard, in a singular uprising against the global.
Enmity, even virally, follows the immune scheme. The enemy virus enters the system, which functions as an immune system and repels the viral intruder. The genealogy of enmity does not match, however, with the genealogy of violence. The violence of positivity does not presuppose any enmity. It unfolds in a permissive just and peaceful society. Because it is less visible than viral violence. Inhabits the space of negativity of the identical, there exists no enemy friend polarization between the inside and the outside, or between self and strange. (Chul-Han, 2015: 21-23).
In this sense, violence positivity manifesting our society, and disappears denies any form of otherness. The old dichotomy of Carl Schmitt’s friend-enemy is raptured. No enemy or inside, or outside the imaginary boundaries. The death of otherness, means that in the society of the identical the enemy invisible and does the same; makes the strange and the stranger similar; and that remaining outside, which usually are the groups of immigrants, poor, sick or subordinates is ignored, admitted half and accepted as a kind of load that can also neutralize smoothly because either it is assimilated, or failing is excluded.
Consequently, individuals living on the edge of fatigue and fight all expressions of tired, stressed out or in the worst case, stop believing in it. The struggle to prevail ends with exhaustion. People often say, “and was privatized oil, whatever. Nothing you can do. ” And if you try something it will be useless. The deaths and disappearances no longer take importance, and stop having great impressions and indignation in society. Disappearances and deaths are reconciled and naturalize as a naturalized part of coexistence. So the machinery of indifference, fatigue and selfishness we break functionality.
We can give many examples, as the case who is said Marxist but works as all immanent to the system of profits, buy, live in luxury, consume, boasts, complains about everything but does not see the others, and ends up being one more grain of the whole, a system of personality disorder as split that says one thing but does another (and that kind of violent positivity are saturated: demagogues of democracy working for retailers, “communicators” who speak but not They analyze anything or talk about everything because “know everything” and nothing they say); millionaires who say help society but pay starvation wages; leaders who speak of justice and good treatment but do what they do every boss when distributed loads and prefer some over others distributing these charges whim (being subordinate chiefs they the same ones that treatment with their heads). (Orozco, 2015: 180).
In that sense, the society of our liquid times, dominates an overabundance of sameness. Creating a kind of mirage, where at the end the individual remains exhausted and upset at his personality. Having a significant impact on the psychological level.
To cure these symptoms, individuals create rituals of body relaxation, mental spiritual order to maintain a healthy lifestyle and maintain common bonds of happiness. So the individual goes to the gym, doing weights, jog, she attends yoga classes, walk, climb, go to the sauna to sweat, eat appropriate diets, adorn themselves and then return to work, school or anywhere occupy your time. The modern individual is required itself to achieve everything possible to get that which is impossible. Han Chul mentioned in this regard: “Man performance is at war with himself and among those who do not achieve their purposes (…) campea depression. It is the disease of a highly productive positive partnership “(Chul-Han, 2015: 85). Of handle we have a free subject who forces himself to pay, but in its plot freedom takes it to extreme fatigue and boredom that leads him.
Therefore, the process of individualization of society requires an excess, seduction and various pleasures. The amount of stimuli that affect the lives of individuals is impressive. Today more than ever a surprising amount of music that is accessible to anyone who has the conditions to access it through the internet, pages that provide services of series television and catalogs on-demand movies, video games, entertainment third occurs dimension impressions of thousands of books in the form of best-selling large amounts of guided tours around the world in months interest are offered, companies pay television have greater coverage at a cost diminishing where the viewer may have 800 available channels, which usually always programming is repeated, cell plans to remain always connected; there are a lot of social networks where photos are uploaded, stories are told, the curriculum is set out to look for a job, experiences are discussed, comments on a topic are made in common, it seduces and seek congenial relationships of love or friendship, conversations are used to publicly that everyone knows everything and all at once anything from anyone.
At the same time, the individual becomes a multifaceted being, doing various activities that keep performance and constant movement, because the speed with which their experience is experienced, require that the individual today becomes a versatile human . While the individual writes to the pair you can listen to your favorite music is pending emails; think millions of things or activities done at different times of day, you can take a phone call and while chatting with a friend who is in somewhere in the world. It may be in a conference and send messages at the same time, at the end of the day back to the gym to relax and regain the energy to start a new tomorrow.
In our time, the individualization of society recreates leisure and entertainment, but at the same torque, speed to suit the times becomes more relevant. That is why specialization becomes one of the main pillars to survive in this liquid world. Hence no accident that today more than ever various forms of education and institutions that educate the individual to appear. Receiving an education that does not necessarily involve an effort in thought, criticism or reflection on the political, social and cultural happenings, but receives methods and tools that enable it as an entrepreneur of his life, maximizing their resources and calculating their property and their relationships. This suggests the individual who is, advanced, civilized, modernized, educated and free higher being. Paradoxically, these peculiarities make the individual a late and clumsy one. What lingers rather than lead, isolates and atomizes. This is the essence of individualization.
Today we have gone from concern for the good life to the occupation for survival. We are barely surviving in a hostile and fast world. When we have time dodged relations. the existence of the other is diluted. And the contemplative life becomes active.
Merleau-Ponty mentions about it, “during the contemplative state, [the individual] is somewhat out of himself and immersed in things” (Ponty, 2013: 56). That determines the individual to undergo a process of desprendiemiento with their social ties. Since the individual of our time has many things to do, but has stopped watching carefully.
They not reflect on what they see. Do not let things speak. They must arrive at seven, go together, go to class, students attend, hurry back to another class, see other students go to class again. Then home. What time you can see something ?. The tardemodernos men have lost the ability to contemplate. know not bored properly. Boredom is not negative when it binds to the contemplative attitude (Orozco, 2015: 193).
This modern form of society has a major impact on the field of politics, especially with the way we do, think and organize politically. This inability to think, listen, meditate and reflect on their happenings arising from political activity have a major impact and constantly manifested in a gradual disenchantment with it, but paradoxically, the individual through an apparent freedom that grant economic through access to consumption information and various forms of seduction and entertainment conditions. Allow other forms of association. However, with regard to politics, more than ever live immersed in a constant disappointment and living under the yoke of agony. The policy is no longer conceived as a space of possibility, to become the place of the impossible. The individual calls for more freedom and less political. It is why we should ask ourselves today more than ever about the meaning and significance of politics in these times
THE DISCREET DISENCHANTMENT POLICY
In one of the banners slogan that could be observed during the marches of the movement of the indignant you could read the phrase “Less politics, more freedom”. While the message of the banner was intended to criticize and put a partisan regime lacks legitimacy and credibility into question. Today, in various parts of the world, politics considered that activity and ability to get things going through a severe crisis terminal.
Questioning the meaning of politics from the land arrompan us under the effects of globalization and the increasing individualization of society, it could be a pretty delusional question lacking any significance. Because politics in our age is regarded as a selfish activity, which only exercise those in the upper echelons of the bureaucracy, technocrats, intellectuals belonging to an academic and cultural aristocracy, but above all, it makes a very select elite movers and dominate the threads of the national and global economy.
At present, political activity lives in a transparent reality invisible attitudes and positions on it, generating a constant divorce between those who represent (the ability to decide what political power (the ability to do things), the policy to do) and society in general (as the articulator handler element, mediator, plaintiff and between politics and political power). Few people expect salvation from the highest levels; the promises of ministers and various political figures are received with incredulity peppered with irony, and even worse, lying and romantic rhetoric.
That is why freedom is a condition that seduces us and constantly falls, but paradoxically, it is through the elites who dress up and hobble the discourse of freedom and transform as part of a democratic discourse, but in the practice is expressed as that ability to join a consumerist logic, lives default elections, deposited in the isolation and loneliness of individuality but with social values-oriented productivity and creating better opportunities for employment and professional living.
The policy of national states failed to comply with its duties in security and social protection through their traditional institutions and gradually moved into the private life of the individual, through productive solidarity, specialization and division of labor. In that sense, the individual becomes your only savior, promoter and persecutor of their own welfare. So that political activity becomes a lot of frustrated hopes and wasted time. So the individual prefers to employ and do things to facilitate their individual welfare, to change their reality through collective action.
In any case, we do not feel the need (again, except for some irritations occasions) to take to the streets to demand and demand more freedom or a better freedom that we have. But on the other hand, tend to believe just as firmly that there is little that can change, individually, in groups or all together- the course of world affairs, or the way they are handled; and we also believe that, if we were able to produce a change, it would be futile, and even unreasonable to think together a different world and strive to make it exist if we believe it could be better than the existing one. (Bauman, 1999: 9).
Traveling policy was exercised after the Second World War and that was trivializing over subsequent years was losing substance and stiffness due to loss of power to pressure groups that belong to the economic group. The policy of our era characterized by the loss of substance of the old institutional means of security and social protection; leaving it there, or failing that, are no longer in places that until recently they were intended. Power and local politics walk separately and divorce significantly affects society.
At present, power has moved, now walk freely through the new global, free extensions control, roaming less rambunctious land making it a little trackable element but its effects are felt in each of still considered the national states, so the policy is stripped of almost all its power and leaderless walks without direction and purpose.
So individuals by decree and artisans of their destiny, seem to be abandoned and exposed to insecurity and the little protection. They are doomed to pursue their own resources. And that generates, that the individuals themselves to be driven to subsist have no consideration for the other. In that sense, the individual is the need to compete effectively transformed through an education that not so long demerit or to set the minimum effort of thought and sensitivity. What matters is specialized to adopt new tools to be considered for the job offer, should be supportive but to create new spaces of exceedances expressed in materiality and consumption of products, in addition to having the ability to be self-directed and always keep the expectations of progress and development.
Under this new environment, the individual lives immersed in the bottom of a terrible reality that must face; the tasks entrusted to it are extremely impressive and are rarely solved satisfactorily. So these conditions result in various social pathologies such as frustration, failures expressed in depressions, in confusion, suicide, violence, fatalism and despair.
The policy that proliferates in our times lies of the media crisis and instruments of affective action. “And its derivative: the vexing, exasperating and degrading feeling of having been condemned to solitude against shared perils” (Bauman, 2015: 81).
Hence, now more than ever the living individual immersed in a “risk society” (Beck, 2006). For on the one hand, if we observe the development of multi-religious, multi-cultural, multi-ethnic societies and the multiplication of sovereignties. You can also observe the progressive extension of the informal sector of the economy, the flexibility of labor, legal deregulation of large sectors of the economy, job security groups such as unions and the loss of legitimacy of the state.
These impacts generate the implication that the individual living in a network of institutions deactivated by the nation-state, so the impact on the social sphere take greater complexity, and with it, the problems afflicting society grow exponentially.
In that sense, the risk not only means being exposed to the dangers of modernization transformations that promotes global capitalism, but also means the anticipation and monitoring of future consequences of human action.
So in global risk society, politics becomes extremely important, but contradictorily left in unison and in the corner of oblivion. For the risks that constantly is the individual growing importance taken, and thus, the need to create new living spaces to think and then activate new mechanisms to compensate not only the individual, but to the whole society in general. However, creating these spaces is a highly contentious issue.
Just as Zygmunt Bauman argues in his most recent work in collaboration with the Lithuanian philosopher and playwright Leonidas Donskis, moral blindness. The loss of sensation in the liquid modernity:
There is no shortage of scout outings, or desperate to find new instruments for collective action in an increasingly globalized scenario are more efficient attempts that political tools invented and tune in poswesfaliana era of nation-building, and they will more likely to carry the popular will to fulfillment of which can be dreamed for ostensibly sovereign state bodies, trapped in their double bond (Bauman, 2015: 81).
However, this condition causes various types of belief about what it means action and political freedom, which is consolidated from the springs and abundant speeches about democracy and freedom, and that I think should be some thought.
In this sense, if we start from the idea that the individual for the first time in its history is a truly free individual, that because of their growing independence and autonomy to address, and to make different choices that seem most appropriate to handle and drive his life, and therefore their existence in society. If freedom has been conquered, how is it possible that the human ability to imagine a better world and do something to improve it has not been part of that eloquent victory that boast both ideologues and supporters of liberal democracy ?, what kind freedom individuals have conquered not only serves to discourage imagination and to tolerate the impotence of free people regarding issues that concern them all?
In our chaotic time, individual freedom coincides with the increase of collective impotence is expressed primarily in political activity. For bridges public and private life of the individual were never built in a homogeneous and harmonious, ie, there is no easy or obvious way to translate private concerns into public issues and, conversely to discern in private concerns issues public concern. Since in our modern liquid society bridges are conspicuous by their absence and the art of politics is rarely practiced in public, but which, paradoxically, is always done on a daily basis in the public space, but not leading towards paths that have greater impact and relevance.
In that sense, the bridge of the public and the private is kept in areas that have the ability to explode when are rising and falling. So the absence of strong, transgressive and permanent mechanisms, private grievances and public demands fail to become so strong, because, among other reasons, lack of condensation by the community. Besides the individual is more concerned with issues of interest for private that for reasons of social interest.
Under these circumstances, the sociability of individuals as spheres floating in a liquid ground that keeps him adrift, searching in vain solid ground where anchor a visible and viable objective for all.
Lacking stable way of channeling our desire tends to free association in isolated explosions … and short-lived, as all the explosions. Output usually be offered through carnivals of compassion and charity; sometimes by outbursts of hostility and aggression against any newly discovered public enemy (ie, against someone that most people can recognize as private enemy); on other occasions, through an event that brings in most the same intense feeling that lets you synchronize your joy, as when the national team won the World Cup, or as happened in the case of the tragic death of Princess Diana . The problem is that all these occasions tend to sell: once we return to our everyday occupations, things become unchanged, the same place where they were. And when the dazzling blaze of solidarity is extinguished, the lonely wake either alone or before, while shared world, so brilliantly illuminated by a moment ago, it seems even darker than before. And after the explosive discharge, it has little energy left to rekindle the footlights. (Bauman, 1999: 11).
According to Bauman’s ability to change the state of affairs it lies mainly in the agora, a space that is neither public nor private but rather is public-private. It is the “space where private problems meet significantly, that is, not only to cause narcissistic pleasures […] but to find levers that collectively applied are powerful enough …” (Bauman, 1999: 11). In order to raise individuals from their individual misfortunes through spaces where the idea can be born as the public good, the just society, community values.
However, the problem is that in our time, in modern society gradually I become of the former private-public spaces, and mostly moved to virtual land as the Internet and social networks. In that sense, public space had a sort of modernization and technologization. So the old agora participation and the political subjects have appropriated and have been replaced by new market entrepreneurs and product consumers the letter that promotes advertising, fashion and marketing. So that individuals have been recycled into theme parks, while powerful forces conspire with political apathy to refuse permission to build new ways of doing politics.
Corneluis Castoriadis in advancing insignificance corresponding to the fourth title of the series Les Carrefours du labyrinthe tells Daniel Mermet “Politicians are powerless. […] They do not have a program. His only goal is to stay in power. ” (Castoriadis, 2005: 52). So today, there is a clear expression of a political doctrine and ideology that has as project a sense of social functioning, political, ethical and cultural. But now politics is reduced to an individualized expression of selfishness, narcissism, cynicism and development of goods to compensate the political and economic elites.
In addition, it spreads massively through various messages that can be clearly seen in political speeches, journalistic, commercial notes on television and in other media paraphernalia that there is no way to build another possible world, as we inhabit is the only one there. And so we must be well “prepared” to face the difficult times we clothing.
Consequently, liberalism today is reduced to the simple credo of no alternative. If you want to discover the source of the growing political apathy, you do not need to look further or take a tour into the past. For the current policy it promotes and rewards conformism. And settle our state of affairs and with our prevailing reality in a matter that does not need the other, but rather one can do it alone from the comfort of home, school or work. So why bother if politicians, of any trend, can not promise us anything except more of the same?
The surname democratic political activity deals with dismantling the limits of freedom of citizens but also self-limiting. Well at first it gives citizens as free to enable them establish, individually and collectively, their own limits, both individual and collective. This second part of the proposition is that which has been lost. Now all limits are unlimited. Any attempt to self-limitation is considered the first step on a path that leads directly to the gulag or rather exclusion, as if there was no other option than the dictatorship of the market and the government, as if there was a space for citizens converted in political subjects except for consumers and producers of commercial inputs. “They are just like that supported by the financial and commercial markets” (Bauman, 1999: 12). Thus the government and economic elites promote and cultivate a form of social, cultural and political organization. And through this it enables the individualization process meets its mandate to atomize the individual in society through selfishness, apathy, indifference, insensitivity and uncritical condition of their situations and their environment.
We live in times of “The accumulation of trash and garbage” (Castoriadis, 2005). This accumulation should not be limits, as the limits are considered anathema and none would be tolerated.
Consequently, “the dislike of self-restraint, generalized conformism and the resulting insignificance of politics has a price. A very high price, indeed. The price is paid in the currency usually paid the price of poor policy: human suffering “(Bauman 1999: 11). So these sufferings are perpetuated in different ways and can be traced to the same origin. For just as we try to visualize in our first chapter of this research, it is born from a productive logic that invents industrial capitalism and through specialty division of labor, productive solidarity and monetization of the individual as a form relationship, will result in a set of values such as political apathy, indifference to the social and the pursuit of their private welfare, which subsequently expressed in emphatic fashion in the exercise of a bad political practice. And in our time it is expressed dramatically in an environment of uncertainty, vulnerability and insecurity.
The more sinister and pitiful contemporary problem can be expressed more precisely by the term “Unsicherheit”, the German word that fuses other three Spanish: “uncertainty”, “insecurity” and “vulnerability”. The funny thing is that the nature of this problem is also a powerful deterrent to implement collective remedies: people who feel insecure, people concerned about what the future may hold and fear for their safety, they are not truly free to face the risks requires collective action. They lack the courage to try and time to imagine alternatives of coexistence; and they are too preoccupied with tasks that can not think together, which can not devote their energy and can only be undertaken collectively. (Bauman, 1999: 12).
So that political institutions proliferate and are created today to help people in their fight against insecurity and lack of protection offered them little help. So the individual is forced to create their own security mechanisms and finding them protection precisely in the same market. That is why the individual of our time rather spend their energies and meet a withering day of work, or activities see reflected in the pocket of the people and to allow him to remain stable and with some individual certainty, that dedicate to do social activities and charitable common good for the sake of it without being reflected with some salary or financial aid. Here is the fundamental core of production and reproduction process of individualization of political paths.
According to Ulrich Beck, who has been one of the most hasty thinkers in the analysis of globalization and its impact on public life. It mentions that precisely individualization is a process that transforms institutionally political attitudes of society. Since the institutions responsible for maintaining a certain cohesion and regulation of the social, to be limited and worn by the increasing loss of political power, due to the strong and rapid changes that originate with the process of globalization driven by transnational economic elites these institutions are in the land of the local can not do much to provide certainty and assurance to the individual.
However, when social scenario emerges in some joint organization of actors and political subjects to mitigate those insecurities and start conquering rights that dignify the lives of individuals, most of these actions and measures taken by those involved tend to be divided; sow suspicion and eventually separated, running to become more lonely, frustrated and isolated.
This is one reason for the dearth of demand for private-public spaces, and the fact that the few that exist are empty most of the time determines its reduction and even disappearance. Another reason for public spaces tend to disappear is the blatant lack of importance of everything that happens to them (Bauman, 1999: 13).
However, besides these public-private spaces are gradually disappearing in the physical area of the square or the street, they are causing other mechanisms of expression on political issues from social networks and internet groups.
While these “new” spaces are criticized and sometimes trivialized by the eloquence in their forms of communication and entertainment purposes, many individuals of our times consider it a good tool for organizing mobilization, express criticism and judgments on political activity or to express various dislikes about the party-political figures or political situations.
This has caused classical politics, to call in some way associated with the power to turn private troubles into public issues, as well as the power to transform them internalize public and private affairs issues. Today this political mechanism is outdated and outmoded. For politics that prevails in our modern society, usually, individuals addressing public issues that arise from the private problems of public figures.
Observe the many political clowns today become more popular than any political or expert outdated bureaucratic type. We approached gently to a phase of political life in which the main rival of a consolidated political party will not be another political party or cutting different ideology, but an influential non-governmental organization or social movement. (Bauman; Donskis, 2015: 71)
In that sense we live incurred and thirst for power that manifests itself and is in an economic force, and not in the old military structures or political institutions. The power now shows how much power you possess to access the consumer, pleasure; power is a way to attain a decent material life. Consumption, therefore I am.
We have become accustomed to consider the human being as a mere statistical unit. We are not surprised conceive humans as a labor force. The purchasing power of humans and the ability to consume have become crucial criteria for assessing the degree of suitability of a country when joining the club of power, which we apply several pompous titles of international organizations. The question of democracy is relevant only when you have no power and you have to control it with political and rhetorical sticks. If you are rich in oil or you can consume or invest a lot, that absolves you of not respecting modern political and moral sensitivity or not commit to civil liberties and human rights (Bauman; Donskis, 2015: 72).
The sufferings born individually are very similar with the other, they share the growing debts of taxes and services, live in uncertainty of job insecurity or underpaid wages, share the confusion of vital long-term prospects; this whole atmosphere is reduced to existential uncertainty: that strange mixture of ignorance and powerlessness and an inexhaustible source of humiliation and desosiego.
However, the real power to make decisions and influence the other remains at a safe distance from politics. Where individuals are limited and have to reach back into their hands the addresses of their social life. The buying power is deposited in the minds of individuals and becomes a frothy ideology that makes it impossible for people to think and to project possible scenarios of coexistence. As expressed by Cornelius Castoriadis, “the problem of our civilization is that it stopped questioning” (Castoriadis. 2000) and add, ceased to learn to think, and therefore ceased to create possible scenarios of relationship and change. We change innovation by thinking, technology for political activity, the collective interest by the individual. Paraphrasing Bauman, land solids quicksand.
No society that forgets the art of asking questions or allowing that condition to fall into disuse can find answers to the problems that afflict them. Although it should be noted, that they are in academic cloisters, research groups and stakeholders on the issues that haunt us who are in pursuit and constant reflection to find new paths to give us out of the dark times that we embrace today. As artists, filmmakers, painters, among others.
So the social air around us and we breathe often in our daily lives, it seems that puny freedom we have seemingly conquered and suffocates us when they access the circle of consumption and individual pleasure, is the only thing worth worth living.
But for true freedom as a condition and not as an act of apparent consumption, it is that individual freedom can only be achieved and produced under the collective work. Freedom, dare I say, can only be achieved and guaranteed collectively.
In the XXI century we move towards privatization of the means to ensure and guarantee our individual freedom, so we are close to an accident that could leave us without any trace of collective life. And that is constantly going expressing various sinister and appalling social conditions in our day such as: there are increasing extreme poverty, marginalization and exclusion, emergence of drug gangs, organized crime groups money laundering, terrorist acts, social redundancy and latent fear. Diseases that gradually being manifested in various parts of the world. But all this environment is made-up by the seduction of consumption, hedonism, the individualist ideology, the media and entertainment.
The policy is not kept away from the seduction. Those responsible for politics today have very into account the importance of their image, which is used to send a humanized message to society that governs often occurs before the people with ostentatious simplicity, is presented with guayabera , jeans or jacket type jackets, humbly acknowledges its limitations, weaknesses and maintain a supportive speech to beat the ills that afflict a nation specific.
This form of personalized politics corresponds to the emergence of these new values that have been created at present and which correspond to a politically correct way cordiality, confidence, authenticity, personality, values individualism democratic has generated recent times. Not have or express these values, together with a number of basic requirements for a successful political life, it means wasting time.
The daughter seduction of hedonistic individualism that generates market values and radicalized in democracy makes politics a show, perverting democracies themselves because they are filled with advertising intoxication and manipulation of the electorate through the image, appearance and delusions.
Politics has entered the era of spectacular or liquidating the inflexible and ideological consciousness for the sake of curiosity dispersed, captured by everything and nothing. Hence the crucial importance of the media in the eyes of politicians; or having another impact that vehiculizado for information, the policy is bound to adopt the style of animation, custom debates, questions and answers, etc., all able to promptly mobilize the attention of the electorate (Lipovetsky, 2003: 39 ).
According to Lipovetsky, the apathy of the policy reflected in our time responds to the plethora of information, its speed of rotation, because as soon as a political event is recorded, it is forgotten almost immediately and is replaced by other political shows larger. In that sense, a paradoxical reality manifests, because excess information received by individuals, generates the same individuals do not have capacity to react, but above all, they do not have the ability to formulate a political identity that is reflected in a mobilization or group, and if they are born, eventually they are consumed. So the policy has the characteristic condition exhausted and disintegrated faster
Pure indifference designates the apotheosis of the temporal and individualist syncretism (…) In these conditions it is clear that the current indifference does not cover only very partially what Marxists call alienation, even if it is an extended alienation. This, we know, is inseparable from the categories of object, merchandise, otherness, and consequently the process of reification, while apathy extends more so as concerns informed and educated subjects. Desertion not reification: the more the system creates responsibilities and reports, more abandonment there is this paradox which prevents assimilate alienation and indifference although this is manifested by boredom and monotony (Lipovetsky, 2003: 41).
Under that argument indifference designates a new consciousness that is reflected in the apparent freedom of the individual and expressed in the various values produced by the process of individuation. The indifference of our times does not mean passivity or re-meaning, but means that the individual acquires his status viewer. The names for the human species of our time is neither pessimistic decadent Nietzsche and the oppressed worker Marx, but is a viewer who is informed and believes from their sources of information coming from social networks, the internet, blogs, newspapers and TV news. So the alienation that was previously in the mechanization of work, now in the free life of the individual and located in different parts of their daily and private life.
This process triggers that political activity is individualized pace of society. Creating an organizational system legitimated under a principle of substantial isolation, ideals and values of society are shared only if the other sees it as respectable. Otherwise, the individual generates all kinds of stigmas, stereotypes and disqualifications that denigrate human beings. Hence not uncommon to read messages, tweets or facebook states disqualifying political mobilization, a school of thought, a gay activist, feminist and transgender group. Intolerance of our time is expressed in a democratic makeup, under the standard of what the individual considers freedom of expression. Therefore, when the social and the political is abandoned, desire, pleasure and communication become the only values that must be preserved.
Hence often can observe the obsessive pursuit of maintaining a healthy and toned body, which seduce and attract the adoration of free sex without commitment, exacerbated consumption technological goods, the use of fashion as body language, finitude science magazines query can be purchased at newsstands to stay informed. The individual lives of our time at the stage of ecstasy of personal liberation, and anyone who violates it, should be excluded, ignored, invisilizado.
That is why specialization, solidarity-oriented production is now expressed in the creation of jobs that are not made by the State, but by the same individual, the social division of labor and monetization of money today it manifests radically as an element of socialization. These elements were built and were gradually moving into society allow integration of the individual to the field of pleasure and consumption, indifference and freedom of choice. Capitalism made indifferent to men and women as it did with things.
Here there is no failure or system resistance, apathy is not a defect but a new flexible socialization socialization and economic << >>, descrispación necessary for the functioning of modern capitalism as an experimental system accelerated and systematic. Founded in the relentless combination of new possibilities, capitalism is indifference ideal for experimentation condition, which can be met and a minimum of resistance (Lipovetsky, 2003: 43).
Why a system whose operation requires indifference continually strives to engage, educate, in interest? The system in which we live reproduces extended devices sense and responsibility that only manage to produce a compromise that is lacking in commitment. Often the elites who hold the strings of the economy and politics, through different media broadcast messages that appear to be positive for the nation and particularly for the individual himself: “Think what you will of the telly enchufadla, vote for us, pay unto your quotes, obey the slogan strike, parties and unions have no requirement that responsibility indifferent (Lipovetsky, 2003: 44).
The indifference of our times is identified with the lack of motivation. The man does not cling to anything, lives in uncertainty, they are uncertain of their future and their present, nothing surprises him and his views are as changeable as the reality itself.
The abandonment of roles and homogenous identities makes our time a random, plural and complex landscape. So the political and the non-existential separate spheres, but rather a mixture become aimless, where borders are erased and redefine priorities.
The apparent freedom with which we live and interact today has extended a desert absolute surprise at the other. We want to be alone but we suffer. Thus we reach the end of this new desert; previously atomised and separated, each person is an active life and their role in society agent does.
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